Welcome to our FAQ & Tips page!

Here you will find our Frequently Asked Questions on the first part and scroll down below to the second part to find our Motivation Letter and Essay Writing Tips! 

Frequently Asked Questions about Y20 Summit Japan 2019:

1. What is Y20 Summit?

The Y20 Summit 2019 Summit will take place from 26-30 May 2019 in Tokyo, Japan.

The Summit will host youth delegates from G20 member countries, representing the best and brightest young people from across the world and delegates from invited guest nations. They will be invited to consider the key themes of the Summit and work collaboratively to devise solutions to issues that not only factor strongly in the 2019 G20 but are also extremely salient issues for young people. 

The delegates of the Y20 Japan 2019 will be those 18-30 years of age.

Japan’s priority agenda for its G20 Osaka Summit 2019 rests on seven priority issues:

  • Promoting free trade;

  • Science and technology innovation;

  • Infrastructure for development;

  • Global health;

  • Climate change;

  • Aging populations; and

  • Promoting the Sustainable Development Goals and international development.

The outcome of the Youth Summit will be a Communiqué that will be presented to the G20 leaders which outline the common ideas that were devised by the delegates at the summit.

If you want to know more about our previous Summits, visit our page at http://www.indonesianyouthdiplomacy.org

2. What is the background of the Y20 Summits?

The Y8/Y20 Summits were formerly known as the G8/G20 Youth Summits. The international organization responsible for these summits is The International Diplomatic Engagement Association (The IDEA), part of our global network. The IDEA is a collective of not-for-profit, youth-led organizations from around the world. Some are think tanks, some are charities, some are civil society groups, but they all have one thing in common: they all want to put young people at the heart of the global agenda.

If you want to know more about The IDEA, check out their official website at http://www.whatistheidea.org/

3. Is this Summit similar to Model United Nations?

Even though the format of the Y20 Summit is modeled after the real G8 & G20 Summits (ie. Invited countries and minister positions available), the Y20 Summit is not a model event.

Delegates may use current policies of their respective governments as their base of arguments during negotiations. However, the Y20 Summit aims to go beyond simulating existing international policies and promote creative and pragmatic solutions to current world problems. Delegates are encouraged to think outside the box and represent fresh yet practical approach to the G20 issues with a distinct youth voice.

The Summit’s communiqué will be represented to current policymakers in each of the participating countries as well as a formal youth input to the following G20 Summit. This gives the Summits a unique advantage of ensuring the youth’s voices reach today’s lawmakers.

4. I want to be an Indonesian delegate for this year’s Summit, how do I apply?

Go to our website, indonesianyouthdiplomacy.org and follow the instructions given on how to apply to this year's Summit. Overall, the application process consists of three stages. 

The first round starts by filling out an online form with personal information and a statement to apply to Y20 Summit and IYD Community Member. 

The second round involves the submission of a resume, a motivational letter, and a technical essay on one of the three G20 topics provided. 

Top applicants will proceed for the final interview round. 

Make sure to submit to us by 7th of February 2019, 23.59 WIB (GMT +7 hours). 

5. Who is eligible to apply as an Indonesian Delegate for the Summit?

We highly encourage you to apply if you are:

  • An inspirational young Indonesian citizen (undergraduate/ graduate student, recent graduate, or young professional in Indonesia or abroad) from either the public, private and/ or civil society sectors;

  • Aged between 18 and 30 years old at the time of the Y20 Japan 2019;

  • Strong leadership and excellent track record;

  • Having a clear understanding of the G20, especially the Leaders’ Summit and the Y20 Summit;

  • Fluent in spoken and written English;

  • Fully committed to participate and contribute enthusiastically in all the sessions of the Y20 Japan 2019 and IYD events, including the pre- and post-Summit commitments; and

  • Medically fit to travel to the Y20 Japan 2019.

6. I am 18/29 years old at the moment. Am I eligible to apply?

If you are 18 years old or still 30 years old by 26 May 2019 – at the time of the Summit, you are eligible to apply.

We are also establishing an Indonesian Youth Diplomacy Community (IYD Community) for the Indonesian public ages 18-30. This has no selection process and we would love it if you could join! Please find further details in the FAQ regarding the new IYD Community on this FAQ page

7. I am an Indonesian, currently studying/ working abroad, can I apply?

We welcome all Indonesians to apply, regardless of their current place of study and/or work. We have had many Indonesians studying abroad representing Indonesia in the Y20 Summits.

8. I have a physical disability. Can I still participate?

Yes, as long as you are an Indonesian citizen between the ages of 18 to 30, then you are eligible. We have an equal opportunity principle during the Y20 recruitment 

9. How much does it cost to attend the Summit?

In the previous summits, the hosting governments fund all in-country expenses throughout the summit. More details will be available closer to the date, but please be assured that past delegates have managed to lock-in sponsorship deals.

10. I don’t have a (valid) passport yet, can I still apply?

If you do not have a valid passport at the moment, not to worry, the fact that you have/don’t have a passport at the time of applying is not a scoring criterion. So we still encourage you to apply. However, we suggest you to produce your passport as soon as possible.

Copy of your passport is for effective administration purposes when submitting delegate information to the Japan Organizing Committee

11. What is the required level of English?

English is the official language of the Summit. We want to ensure that the delegates have excellent English skills so that they are able to expand and persuade their arguments during negotiation and able to express their views on position papers. 

Final interview round (in person/Skype) will be conducted in English to test your speaking skills, motivation letter and technical essays are to test your comprehension about applied positions and writing skills, in addition to substantive comprehension.

12. How do I make my application stand out?

We are looking for candidates that are keen and knowledgeable on youth and G20 issues and able to demonstrate not only skills but also willingness to push Indonesian Youth interests forward in the G20 platform. We seek to find candidates through three items:

  • CV/resume,

  • motivation letter, and

  • a technical essay.

Each of the components needs to represent you as a unique and suitable delegate. We also highly emphasize about originality in the essays. That being said, plagiarism is highly prohibited and will be checked. Please do not copy-paste information in your essay. If there are ideas owned by others, please properly paraphrase and reference. We would like to see your original piece, thus will check originality in detail. 

13. How can I submit my CV? Do I have to follow the format in the application form?

Yes you have to use the CV form that has been provided in our application form. You may fill and write anything on the form as long as your CV doesn't exceed the 2 pages in maximum. Make sure to highlight the experiences that are strongly relevant to the themes of the summit. 

13 a. What if I don't have a GPA yet?

For this sub-section, please fill in according to your current situation. If you are currently studying, fill this sub-section in with your current higher education details and the year you will approximately graduate, also include previous higher education details (university level, if any). If you are a professional, fill in with your latest education details (bachelors/masters/phD degrees). 

13 b. What does "Relevant Courses" mean in the Education section?

Please write down the classes you have taken / are taking that are relevant to the Y20 Summit / G20 issues. For example you took a class on International Politics, NGOs, Environmental Economics, English, etc. You are only required to write down the title.

13 c. What if I have no working experience yet? How should I fill in the work experience section? Will I still be eligible to apply?

If you have no working experience yet, you can leave this section blank. You will still be eligible to apply. 

13 d. Do I have to attach a copy of the certificates of the standardized tests I have for proof?

For the first round, you do not require to attach any copies of the standardized tests you have. However, it may be asked in later stages and we strongly hope that all applicants are honest when filling in their applications. If found otherwise, IYD has the right to forfeit candidacy.

14. What is the selection process like?

The selection process is categorized in three stages.

  • The first round starts by filling out an online form with personal information and a statement to apply to Y20 Summit and IYD Community Member.

  • The second round involves the submission of a resume, a motivational letter, and a technical essay on one of the three G20 topics provided. Top applicants will proceed for the final interview round. Make sure to submit to us by 7th of February 2019, 23.59 WIB (GMT+7). A team of graders will assess your application and determine an average score for each applicant, then ranked from highest to lowest. Graders will not be grading applications from applicants they are familiar with to keep things fair and square.

  • The Final Round is an In-Person/Skype video interview where we will be testing your critical thinking and speaking skills. The grading team will go under deliberation to determine the top 2 delegates to represent Indonesia.

15. In the event of an unsuccessful application, how can I still contribute to the discussion?

We do wish to extend as many youth representatives as possible however that is not the case since we could only select a certain number of delegates each year (depending on the defined slot each year). Nonetheless there are many ways for you to still be actively involved in advocating youth’s interests. Here are some ways:

  • We are establishing an IYD Community, a public space where everyone ages 18-30 can apply without prior selection process. You will get the latest updates and announcements surrounding Indonesian Youth Diplomacy (IYD) activities and our partners, and become a part of our mailing list for Indonesian Youths (18-30 years old)! IYD holds a vision to advance Indonesia's youth interests through multilateral platforms and we believe your view counts towards realizing this vision.

  • Voice out your views of what should be the priority of our delegation this year by mentioning us on Twitter. Our Twitter Account is @iYouthDiplomacy.

  • Participate in the online Y20 Indonesia discussion through our website and Twitter.

  • Be a volunteer in our organization, IYD, when there is a recruitment open.            

  • Discuss among your peers about G20 related issues and help spread its awareness  in your daily lives.

  • Engage with IYD events.

16. How can I learn more about Indonesian Youth Diplomacy and Y20 Summit 2019?

Keep yourself up to date via this IYD website of ours, our Twitter @iYouthDiplomacy and our Facebook Page www.facebook.com/YouthDiplomacyID. For official G20 news, drop by at http://g20.org/.

For further queries, drop us an email at info@indonesianyouthdiplomacy.org. Please do expect two-three days time for us to respond your inquiries.

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What We Look For in the Motivation Letter & Technical Essay











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Essay Writing Tips

(This part hereafter is largely adapted by the essay writing guide of David Rayside, which we believe is sufficient to help applicants to formulate their thought in preparing for their essays. - http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:MOX2YgTI2kcJ:politics.utoronto.ca/wpcontent/uploads/2010/11/rayside_writing_guide.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk.)

After brainstorming, researching, and analyzing, you should have a worthwhile insight on what to write about. Now it is time to convert that worthwhile insight into a polished thesis statement, which will then guide and shape the rest of the essay.  The thesis acts as the main claim of your paper, and typically appears near the end of the introduction. Unless you have a compelling reason to relocate the thesis from the traditional place, put it at the end of your introductory paragraph. Readers anticipate and read closely your thesis, and they want to find a polished statement there. The thesis expresses in one concise sentence the point and purpose of your essay. 

Make it arguable

Your thesis must make an arguable assertion. To test whether your assertion is arguable, ask yourself whether it would be possible to argue the opposite. If not, then it is not a thesis – it is more of a fact. For example:

•       Not Arguable: "Computers are becoming an efficient mechanism for managing and transmitting information in large businesses." (Who is going to dispute this? It is not an arguable assertion – it is a fact.)

•       Arguable: "Heavy use of computers may disrupt family cohesion and increase divorce in society." (This is arguable because many people may not believe it. It would make a good thesis!) 

Be specific

The thesis must also be specific. Avoid broad, vague generalizations. Your thesis should include detail and specificity, offering the reader the why behind your reasoning.

•       Poor Specificity: "We should not pass the microchip bill." (Hey, not specific enough! It is just a value statement and does not provide enough reasoning for the reader.)

•       Good Specificity: "Because the microchip insert causes serious health hazards such as cancer and brain tumours to those who use it, the microchip bill should not be passed." (Now the thesis is much more specific, and the reader gets a clear idea of what the essay is going to be about.)  

Avoid Lists

Long lists result in shallow essays because you don't have space to fully explore an idea.

•       Example of a list: "The microchip bill biologically damages the health of children, invades the privacy of independent teenagers, increases crime, turns children against their parents, induces a sense of robotry about the individual, and finally, may result in the possible takeover of the government."

•       Narrower focus: "By surgically inserting circuitry similar to cell phone devices that has been known to cause headaches and fatigue, the microchip biologically endangers the health of children." 

Writing an interesting conclusion

- Recap your main idea

If your essay is long and complex, sometimes difficult to follow, in the conclusion you will want to recap your ideas in a clear, summarizing manner. You want your readers to understand the message you intended to communicate.

- Leave a memorable impression

It is not enough just to restate your main ideas – if you only did that and then ended your essay, your conclusion would be flat and boring. You have got to make a graceful exit from your essay by leaving a memorable impression on the reader. You need to say something that will continue to simmer in the reader's minds long after he or she has put down your essay. To leave this memorable impression, try . . .

•       giving a thought-provoking quotation

•       describing a powerful image

•       talking about consequences or implications

•       stating what action needs to be done

•       ending on an interesting twist of thought

•       explaining why the topic is important

- Keep it short

Keep your conclusion short, approximately a paragraph, and avoid fluff. You are just trying to make a clever exit, and presumably all the really important points have been made previously in your essay. You should not introduce any totally new ideas in the conclusion; however, you should not merely repeat your thesis either. This situation – not presenting anything new, and neither just sticking with the old – at first seems to be a paradox. You get out of this situation by using one of the following typologies of ending:

1. Restating the thesis in a fresh way

If this book has any future use, it will be as a modest contribution to that challenge, and as a warning: that systems of thought like Orientalism, discourses of power, ideological fictions -mind-forged manacles- are all too easily made, applied, and guarded. Above all, I hope to have shown my reader that the answer to Orientalism is not Occidentalism. No former "Oriental" will be comforted by the thought that having been an Oriental himself he is likely – too likely – to study new "Orientals"-or "Occidentals"-of his own making. If the knowledge of Orientalism has any meaning, it is in being a reminder of the seductive degradation of knowledge, of any knowledge, anywhere, at any time. Now, perhaps, more than before. --Orientalism, Edward Said

2. Ending on an image

When one reads any strongly individual piece of writing, one has the impression of seeing a face somewhere behind the page. It is not necessarily the actual face of the writer. I feel this very strongly with Swift, with Defoe, with Fielding, Stendhal, Thackeray, Flaubert, though in several cases I do not know what these people looked like and do not want to know. What one sees is the face that the writer ought to have. Well, in the case of Dickens I see a face that is not quite the face of Dickens's photographs, though it resembles it. It is the face of a man of about forty, with a small beard and a high colour. He is laughing, with a touch of anger in his laughter, but no triumph, no malignity. It is the face of a man who is always fighting against something, but who fights in the open and is not frightened, the face of a man who is generously angry-in other words, of a nineteenth-century liberal, a free intelligence, a type hated with equal hatred by all the smelly little orthodoxies which are now contending for our souls. --"Charles Dickens," George Orwell

3. Moving towards the general

The practice of rhetoric involves a careful attention to the characteristics and preferences of the audience for whom the writer intends the message. Although Syfers' and Limpus' essays might be somewhat out of place for a contemporary audience, in the 1970s they were not. However, as argued throughout this essay, it is Syfers' memorable sarcasm and wit that ultimately win over her audience. Being humorous while also driving home a worthwhile point is a difficult feat to accomplish in writing. Because Syfers accomplishes it so well, she seems to have stepped over the boundaries of time and reached a much larger audience than she may have originally intended. --imitation of a student essay

4. Talking about implications or consequences

I am quite convinced that what hinders progress in the Arab world is the absence of a free press. The dirt in our society has been swept under the carpet for too long. But I am certain that this won't be the case for much longer. Arabs are beginning to engage in lively debate over their political and social predicament. And Al-Jazeera offers a ray of hope. Already, other Arab stations are imitating The Opposite Direction, though with limitations. Press freedom leads to political freedom. Someday, in spite of the attempts by today's totalitarian rulers, a free Arab press may help to create real democracy in the Arab world. --Fasial al-Kasim, "Crossfire: The Arab Version”

The Importance of Clarity

Use topic sentences

Few techniques add more clarity to your writing than well-formed topic sentences. Topic sentences usually appear at or near the beginning of each paragraph and tell the reader what the topic of the paragraph will be. Using topic sentences to "signpost" your meaning will orient the reader and help him or her follow comfortably along your path of thought. You will discover that when a writer uses topic sentences, you can skim the entire essay and still understand the main points. The next time you read a long essay, try reading only the first one or two sentences of each paragraph. You will rarely be lost or confused if the topic sentences make clear what the purpose of each paragraph is.

Make clear transitions

Transitions act as bridges between your paragraphs. Since each paragraph offers a distinct thought, you need to connect these two distinct thoughts in some logical way for the reader. The transitions supply the logic of how two paragraphs connect, how one idea leads to the next, or how the two are related. Don't make the reader guess how one paragraph relates to the other.

Omit needless words

A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. In other words, if you bought a new car and looked under the hood, you would be appalled to see unnecessary, functionless parts. Similarly in an essay, all sentences and paragraphs must have an essential function and purpose. Concision can also be understood through the metaphor of dilution. A word by itself has a sense of power, but when combined with other words, the power of that word is diluted by the presence of the other words, each of which is fighting for the reader's attention. If you want to focus the reader's attention, don't dilute your best words with unnecessary phrases and elaborations. In this way, more can be less.

EX. 1

•       Needless Words: A good basketball player is not necessarily one who is tall and dominating on the floor, or who has more height than the other players (e.g., 6'7" and above), but rather one who is keen enough to perceive strengths and weaknesses on the court, can see mismatches, liabilities, weak spots, and knows as well how to capitalize on his or her own strengths, be they speed, quickness, or explosive driving power.

•       Concise: A good basketball player is not necessarily one who is tall and dominating, but rather one who can perceive strengths and weaknesses on the court, can see mismatches, liabilities, weak spots, and knows as well how to capitalize on his or her own strengths, be they speed, quickness, or explosive driving power.

•       Super Concise: A good basketball player needs prudence more than height.

Ex. 2

•       Needless Words: Rugby players must be fully prepared and always ready to immolate their almost already war-torn bodies in sacrifice, in diving ruthlessly for the leather ball, blocking with their arms extended and their legs firmly planted on the ground, always moving with tenacity and vigour and enthusiasm across the expansive green lawn, for the good of the team and the honour of the sport itself. Long live the Queen!

•       Concise: Rugby players must be fully prepared to immolate their bodies in sacrifice, in diving ruthlessly for the ball, blocking with their arms extended and their legs firmly planted, always moving with tenacity and vigour across the expansive green lawn, for the good of the team and the honour of the sport itself.

•       Super Concise: Rugby players sacrifice their bodies for the game.  

Be straightforward

Beyond any of the above techniques, you can increase the clarity of your writing by practicing a general straightforwardness in the expression of your ideas. Look over your sentences and ask yourself whether they communicate their ideas in the clearest way possible. You may want to pretend that a twelve-year-old will be reading your text. Will he understand what you're talking about? Remember that while your reader may possess more sophistication than a young child, you do not want to make the reader struggle to follow your ideas. Keep your meaning simple and easy to understand. To really be clear, you might try talking out your sentences. Imagine yourself saying what you have written to a friend sitting beside you. If you can imagine yourself speaking to your friend with the same sentences you've written, the chances are your writing is probably clear and easy to follow. On the other hand, if you cannot see yourself saying what you have written to anyone, consider revising it to make it more readable. Go back and revise your sentences to make them friendlier, clearer, more straightforward.


You must acknowledge the source of the ideas, data, and words that you use – apart from information widely available and understood. If you rely on facts, which any intelligent social scientist would be expected to know, you do not need to indicate the precise source. But if you derived an unusual fact or a distinctive assertion from a particular author, you must tell your reader where it came from, partly to credit the original author and partly to allow your reader to judge the validity of your claims. Not doing that entails theft.

This form of theft, which we call plagiarism can vary from the borrowing of an idea without credit to the purchasing of an essay written by someone else to the downloading of all of part of an assignment from the internet. The internet provides the means to gather vast amounts of information for essays, and the same rules apply as for published written material. If you use information that is not commonly known, or an interpretation derived from a particular author whose work is on the internet, you should indicate the source. If you use web site material that is also available in hard copy, you should indicate the internet source if it was there that you actually derived the information you used. If you are tempted to use electronically-accessible material without citing it, or to pass off whole essays available from web sites, you should realize that there are lots of effective ways of tracking down sources of essay writing that are thought suspicious. By all means use the contributions of other writers and of other students to help build your own argument. But take the time and the care to document the origins of those ideas, and then work at making something of your own in the way you construct your essay. 

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(This part below is taken from the Harvard Guide to Using Sources here and here; also from the Chicago Guide here)

How to indicate sources to avoid Plagiarism

1. When and How to Paraphrase a Source

When you paraphrase from a source, you restate the source's ideas in your own words. A paraphrase of a source offers your readers the same level of detail provided in the original source. Therefore, a paraphrase will generally be about the same length as the original source material.

When you use any part of a source in your paper—as background information, as evidence, as counterargument to which you plan to respond, or in any other form—you will always need to decide whether to quote directly from the source or to paraphrase it. Unless you have a good reason to quote directly from the source, you should paraphrase the source. Any time you paraphrase an author's words and ideas in your paper, you should make it clear to your reader why you are presenting this particular material from a source at this point in your paper. You should also make sure you have represented the author accurately, that you have used your own words consistently, and that you have cited the source.


Source Material

The problem of obedience is not wholly psychological. The form and shape of society and the way it is developing have much to do with it. There was a time, perhaps, when people were able to give a fully human response to any situation because they were fully absorbed in it as human beings. But as soon as there was a division of labor things changed. --Stanley Milgram, "The Perils of Obedience"

(Taken from the Book -- Milgram, S. (1974). The perils of obedience. In L.G. Kirszner & S.R. Mandell (Eds.) The Blair reader (pp.725-737). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.)


Milgram (1974) claims that people's willingness to obey authority figures cannot be explained by psychological factors alone. In an earlier era, people may have had the ability to invest in social situations to a greater extent. However, as society has become increasingly structured by a division of labor, people have become more alienated from situations over which they do not have control (p.737).

(This paraphrase restates one of Milgram's points in the author's own words. When you paraphrase, you should always cite the source. This paraphrase uses the APA in-text citation style. Every source you paraphrase should also be included in your list of references at the end of your paper.)

2. When and How Much to Quote

The basic rule of thumb in all disciplines is that you should only quote directly from a text when it's important for your reader to see the actual language used by the author of the source. While paraphrase and summary are effective ways to introduce your reader to someone's ideas, quoting directly from a text allows you to introduce your reader to the way those ideas are expressed by showing such details as language, syntax, and cadence.

You should use quotations in the following situations:

·       When you plan to discuss the actual language of a text.

·       When you are discussing an author's position or theory and you plan to discuss the wording of a core assertion or       kernel of the argument in your paper.

·       When you risk losing the essence of the author's ideas in the translation from her words to your own.

·       When you want to appeal to the authority of the author and using his or her words will emphasize that authority.

Once you have decided to quote part of a text, you'll need to decide whether you are going to quote a long passage (a block quotation) or a short passage (a sentence or two within the text of your essay). Unless you are planning to do something substantive with a long quotation—to analyze the language in detail or otherwise break it down—you should not use block quotations in your essay. While long quotations will stretch your page limit, they don't add anything to your argument unless you also spend time discussing them in a way that illuminates a point you're making. Unless you are giving your readers something they need to appreciate your argument, you should use quotations sparingly.

3. In-Text Citation (APA)

- In APA style, use parenthetical citations within the text of your paper to credit your sources, to indicate the currency of your sources, and to refer your reader to a more detailed citation in your reference list. Use parenthetical citations when you paraphrase, quote, or make any reference to another author's work. A parenthetical citation in APA style should include the author's last name as well as the year in which the work was published, with a comma separating them. If the author's name and/or the year of publication are clear from the sentence preceding the citation, you may omit them from the citation.


One study of two large school districts shows that unions do not dominate the financing of school board elections (Adams, 2008).


- If you refer to a specific page or pages of the text, first list the year of publication and then list "p." followed by the page number or "pp." followed by the range of pages. If you refer to a specific chapter, indicate that chapter after the year.


The Supreme Court has considered the constitutionality of granting union members the exclusive right to participate in collective bargaining in two cases (Imber & Van Geel, 2004, pp. 472-481).


- If a work has three, four, or five authors list the last name of every author the first time you refer to their work, but list only the first author's name followed by "et al." in subsequent references. If a work has six or more authors, list only the first author's name followed by "et al." in the first and all subsequent references.


Many local union presidents express willingness to consider performance-based compensation for teachers, despite the opposition of state and national union leaders (Johnson, Donaldson, Munger, Papay, & Qazilbash, 2009, pp. 385-386).

Some school districts maintain a continuous labor-management dialogue outside of formal contract negotiation periods (Johnson et al., 2009, pp. 388-389).

Recent work on mathematical instruction has provided evidence that professional development for teachers can "cut both ways" (Hill et al., 2008, p. 500).


- If the text of your paper makes it clear that you are referring to a particular work, there is no need to repeat the author's name in a parenthetical citation. Instead, you can cite only the year and, if applicable, the page number(s).


Terry Moe argues that well-organized unions wield such influence in school board elections that they "can literally choose the very 'management' they will be bargaining with" (2006, p. 59).


- To attribute a point or idea to multiple sources, list them in one parenthetical citation, ordered alphabetically by author and separated by semicolons. Works by the same author should be ordered chronologically, from oldest to most recent, with the publication dates separated by commas.

Students who possess cultural capital, measured by proxies like involvement in literature, art, and classical music, tend to perform better in school (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1977; Dumais, 2002; Orr, 2003).


4. Footnotes (Chicago)

If you do not want to use in-text citation, you can also use footnotes. The style of Chicago requires footnotes rather than in-text or parenthetical citations. Footnotes or endnotes acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources.

- Generally, you want to provide the author’s name, publication title, publication information, date of publication, and page number(s) if it is the first time the source is being used. Any additional usage, simply use the author’s last name, publication title, and date of publication. Footnotes should match with a superscript number at the end of the sentence referencing the source. You should begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. Do not start the order over on each page.


Henry James, The Ambassadors (Rockville: Serenity, 2009), 34-40.

When citing a source more than once, use a shortened version of the footnote.

James, The Ambassadors, 14.

- Citing sources with more than one author

If there are two or three authors of the source, include their full names in the order they appear on the source. If there are more than three authors, list only the first author followed by “et al.” You should list all the authors in the bibliography.

John K. Smith, Tim Sampson, and Alex J. Hubbard, Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.

John K. Smith, Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.